The closest steel fabrication facility may be much further from the construction site than the nearest concrete supplier. Common fireproofing methods for structural steel include intumescent , endothermic, and plaster coatings as well as drywall, calcium silicate cladding, and mineral wool insulating blankets. 17 In order to determine the fire resistance rating of a steel member, accepted calculations practice can be used, 18 or a fire test can be performed, the critical temperature of which is set by the standard accepted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, such as a building code.
Metal deck and open web steel joist receiving spray fireproofing plaster, made of polystyrene -leavened gypsum. ‘Steel’ with more than 2.1% Carbon is no longer Steel, but is known as Cast iron 15. Pure Iron (‘Steel’ with 0% Carbon) starts to melt at 1,492 °C (2,718 °F), and is completely liquid upon reaching 1,539 °C (2,802 °F). 16 Building codes and structural engineering standard practice defines different critical temperatures depending on the structural element type, configuration, orientation, and loading characteristics. Stainless steel pipes and tubes supplier China
The austenizing temperature, the temperature where a steel transforms to an austenite crystal structure, for steel starts at 900 °C (1,650 °F) for pure iron, then, as more carbon is added, the temperature falls to a minimum 724 °C (1,335 °F) for eutectic steel (steel with only83% by weight of carbon in it). The properties of steel vary widely, depending on its alloying elements. A structural engineer understands that there are an infinite number of designs that will produce an efficient, safe, and affordable building.
14 A parking garage of this type is just one possible example of many structures that may use both reinforced concrete and structural steel. Some parking garages are constructed using structural steel columns and reinforced concrete slabs. This is already common practice in reinforced concrete in that the steel reinforcement is used to provide steel’s tensile strength capacity to a structural concrete member.
Structures consisting of both materials utilize the benefits of structural steel and reinforced concrete. Structural steel and reinforced concrete are not always chosen solely because they are the most ideal material for the structure.
This is due to the much larger volume required for a structural concrete member to support the same load; steel, though denser, does not require as much material to carry a load. The tallest structures today (commonly called ” skyscrapers ” or high-rise ) are constructed using structural steel due to its constructability, as well as its high strength-to-weight ratio. Mold – Steel provides a less suitable surface environment for mold to grow than wood.
The International Building Code requires steel be enveloped in sufficient fire-resistant materials, increasing overall cost of steel structure buildings. Characteristics – Structural steel differs from concrete in its attributed compressive strength as well as tensile strength. Also, when using epoxy coated bars, reinforced concrete members must be designed larger, as well as stronger, in order to balance the loss of friction between the reinforcing bars and concrete.